The Intelligent Investor Summary: By Benjamin Graham

The Intelligent Investor Summary: By Benjamin Graham

I. Introduction

Have you ever heard of the book that’s the cornerstone of investing wisdom? It’s “The Intelligent Investor,” a masterpiece penned by Benjamin Graham, the value investing wizard who mentored the legendary investor Warren Buffet. A man of immense intellect, Graham’s ideas have shaped the investment world for decades.

Warren Buffet, a former student of Benjamin Graham and arguably one of the most successful investors of all time, has often praised “The Intelligent Investor.” He has called it “by far the best book on investing ever written.” In his 2013 letter to Berkshire Hathaway shareholders, Buffet also mentioned that chapter 8 (on market fluctuations and the analogy of ‘Mr. Market’) and chapter 20 (on the ‘margin of safety’) were the most crucial parts of the book that had a significant influence on his investment philosophy. Buffet’s investment approach, focusing on the intrinsic value of companies and long-term investing, reflects many of the principles Graham laid out in “The Intelligent Investor.”

II. Key Concepts

Graham, in his wisdom, defines an “investment” as something that assures the safety of the principal and a satisfactory return. He quickly distinguishes this from speculation, which doesn’t promise these two essentials.

A central idea he propagates is the “margin of safety,” the cushion between a stock’s price and its intrinsic value. This, for Graham, is the secret sauce of intelligent investing.

Then there’s ‘Mr. Market,’ a personification of market mood swings. He’s a fellow investor knocking daily, offering prices influenced by his emotions.

“Mr. Market” is a metaphor created by Benjamin Graham in “The Intelligent Investor” to help illustrate the irrational behavior that financial markets can exhibit.

In Graham’s allegory, an investor owns a stake in a business alongside a partner named Mr. Market. Every day, Mr. Market quotes a price at which he is willing to either buy the investor’s share of the business or sell his own. Despite the business’s underlying value not changing substantially day-to-day, Mr. Market’s quotes fluctuate wildly based on his mood — some days, he is very optimistic. He quotes high prices; other days, he is very pessimistic and quotes low prices.

Investors can ignore Mr. Market, sell their stake to him when he quotes a high price, or buy more from him when he quotes a low price. The key is that the investor should not allow Mr. Market’s daily fluctuations to influence their view of the value of the business. Instead, they should estimate the business’s value based on thorough analysis and use Mr. Market’s quotes to their advantage.

This allegory illustrates Graham’s belief that investors should not be swayed by market volatility. Instead, they should focus on the intrinsic value of their investments and make decisions based on sound analysis rather than the changing moods of Mr. Market.

III. Core Principles

At the heart of Graham’s teachings are four fundamental principles. First, he urges you to look for undervalued companies—those diamonds in the rough that the market has overlooked.

Second, he advocates diversification. Don’t put all your eggs in one basket; spread them across sectors and companies.

Third, he’s a proponent of long-term investing. It’s about a marathon, not a sprint.

And finally, he encourages us to ignore market fluctuations. They’re like weather forecasts, interesting but rarely reliable.

IV. The Defensive Investor

A defensive investor, according to Graham, aims for safety and a decent return. They’re not after the following hot stock; they want a steady, reliable portfolio. They invest in large, financially sound companies with a history of paying dividends.

Graham suggests they should diversify, with a minimum of 15 stocks in their portfolio.

V. The Enterprising Investor

The enterprising investor is the go-getter. They’re willing to put in more work to uncover undervalued stocks. They look for special situations and under-the-radar opportunities.

While this approach demands more effort, it can also reap greater rewards.

VI. Graham’s Views on Market Fluctuations

Graham encourages us to see ‘Mr. Market’ as a business partner who’s emotionally unstable. Some days he’s exuberant; other days, he’s depressed. Instead of being swayed by his mood, use it to your advantage.

VII. The Margin of Safety

The margin of safety is the buffer you have when things go south. It’s like insurance against the unpredictable nature of the market. The bigger the margin, the safer you are.

The “margin of safety” is one of the most important concepts introduced by Benjamin Graham in his book, “The Intelligent Investor.” It’s a risk management strategy to protect an investor from significant losses.

In simple terms, the margin of safety refers to the difference between a company’s intrinsic value (its assets, earnings, dividends, etc., estimated through fundamental analysis) and its current market price. Graham advised buying securities when priced significantly below their intrinsic value, thus creating a margin of safety.

The idea behind the margin of safety is to create a buffer to absorb the impact of errors or miscalculations in the investor’s analysis. These unexpected issues may arise in the company, or broader economic downturns could negatively impact the stock price.

Investing in stocks when they are undervalued gives investors a cushion that can protect them from significant losses. If the stock’s price falls, the investor has a lower risk of losing their principal because the stock was bought at a discount to its intrinsic value.

In essence, the margin of safety protects against the unpredictable nature and inherent risks of investing. The larger the margin of safety, the lower the risk and the more significant potential for gain. As per Graham, this approach, combined with thorough analysis, helps to make intelligent investment decisions.

VIII. Graham’s Stock Selection Criteria

For the defensive investor, Graham recommends blue-chip companies with a steady dividend record.

He suggests looking for underpriced stocks and special situations for the enterprising investor.

Benjamin Graham’s approach to selecting stocks relied heavily on fundamental analysis. He sought out companies that were undervalued based on various valuation metrics, some of which include:

  1. Price-to-Earnings (P/E) Ratio: Graham preferred stocks with a low P/E ratio. This ratio is calculated by dividing the stock’s current market price by its earnings per share. A lower P/E ratio could indicate that the stock is undervalued.
  2. Price-to-Book (P/B) Ratio: Graham used another metric to identify undervalued stocks. The P/B ratio calculates a company’s current share price by its book value per share. Graham was interested in companies trading for less than their book value, i.e., a P/B ratio less than 1. This is rare in today’s market, rarely ever seen anymore.
  3. Debt-to-Equity Ratio: Graham looked for companies with a low debt-to-equity ratio, as this could indicate a stronger financial position and less risk.
  4. Current Ratio: Graham preferred companies with a high current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities), indicating that the company can pay off its short-term liabilities.
  5. Earnings Stability: Graham liked to see a steady earnings record over an extended period, often ten years or more.
  6. Dividend Record: He also looked at companies with a consistent record of paying dividends.
  7. Net Current Asset Value (NCAV): Graham was interested in companies trading at a price less than their net current asset value.

These are a few metrics that Graham considered when evaluating a potential investment. He believed in thorough analysis and not relying on any single metric in isolation. His approach was about finding good quality companies undervalued by the market, providing a margin of safety for the investment.

IX. Graham’s Views on Inflation and Investing

Inflation is like a silent thief; it erodes the value of your money. Graham suggests investing in stocks as a potential hedge against inflation.

Benjamin Graham recognized the erosive impact inflation could have on the purchasing power of money over time. As a hedge against inflation, Graham recommended investing in stocks, especially companies that can pass on increased customer costs and thus maintain or increase profitability during inflationary periods.

In particular, he favored companies with consistent earnings growth and a solid financial structure. Such companies can often navigate through different economic cycles, including periods of high inflation.

While he didn’t specify particular sectors or industries, the principle would guide investors towards stable, mature companies with pricing power in their markets, often found in sectors like consumer staples, utilities, and healthcare.

However, it’s important to remember that Graham advocated for a comprehensive analysis of each company before investment, considering not just the inflation hedge but also factors like the company’s overall financial health, its competitive position, and the price of its stock relative to its intrinsic value.

X. Conclusion

Graham’s principles have stood the test of time. They’re as relevant today as they were when he wrote the book. They don’t promise overnight riches but follow them, and you’re more likely to achieve financial security and success.

Key Takeaways

  • Graham’s teachings provide a roadmap to successful investing. He shows us that investing isn’t about making quick bucks; it’s about patience, discipline, and sound judgment.
  • Investing is about the safety of the principal and a fair return.
  • Always maintain a margin of safety.
  • Be patient and ignore market fluctuations.
  • Understand the difference between a defensive and an enterprising investor, and choose your path.
  • Diversification is essential to manage risk, as it spreads your investments across various sectors and companies, minimizing potential losses.
  • Utilize ‘Mr. Market’ to your advantage; don’t be swayed by its mood swings.
  • The bigger the margin of safety, the lower the risk.
  • Inflation can erode your investments, so have strategies to combat it.


Being an intelligent investor isn’t about having a high IQ or a crystal ball to predict the market. It’s about understanding and applying time-tested principles. It’s about discipline, patience, and a good dose of common sense. It’s about buying undervalued companies, holding them long-term, and ignoring the market noise. And above all, it’s about ensuring a margin of safety in your investments. If you can adopt these principles, you’re on your way to becoming an intelligent investor.